9. Consultancies for Pakistan Voluntary Health and Nutrition Association (PAVHNA)
Pakistan Voluntary Health and Nutrition Association (PAVHNA)
Adolescent reproductive and sexual health is a relatively new concern in Pakistan and there is little literature available to help planners and reproductive health professionals. The adolescent reproductive and sexual health study is a valuable addition to the little information available on the subject. The survey was conducted for adolescents (age 13-21) in four provincial cities of Pakistan ie Karachi, Quetta,. Swabi and Gujranwala. A total of 310 questionnaires were filled out, out of which 177 were girls and 133 were boys. These boys and girls were selected randomly and they were school and college going, working or doing nothing. The area of survey was urban, peri-urban and rural population. A total number of 110 parents were also interviewed.
This evaluation study explored the impact of access to training and paid job on the life style of the PAVHNA’s CBD field staff, their status in their homes, workplaces and in the communities. The evaluation study mainly focussed on information regarding access to opportunities, i.e. training and paid job, on the lifestyle of CBD field staff Field Workers (FWs), Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) and Field Supervisors (FSs), motivation for taking up the job, increase in dignity and self esteem, financial help to the family, improvement in status related to traditional roles at home and decision making. In order to study the impact of the job on CBD staff, analysis was carried out by using ‘before’ and ‘after’ parameters, i.e. before and after taking up job. A total of 246 CBD field staff were covered (178 field workers, 32 LHVs and 36 field supervisors)
Reproductive health baseline survey for PAVHNA ascertained socio-economic conditions, poverty indicators and reproductive health status in the twelve areas of Karachi. A total of 350 households were randomly covered from eight project areas and 200 households from the remaining four areas, making a total sample size of 3,600 households. Data collection covered both primary and secondary data.
- Report “Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health: An Exploration of Trends in Pakistan ”
- Study Paper for the seminar “Adolescent Reproductive Health Policy & Programme Advocacy”, PAVHNA, May 30-31, 2000
- Study on Field Staff of CBD Programme: An Evaluation
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Peshawar (All Pakistan Women Association)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Malir (PAVHNA Malir)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Landhi (Women in Development Association)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Korangi (Peri-Urban Welfare Association)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Orangi (All Pakistan Women Association)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Korangi (Anjuman-e-Khawateen Bara-e-Falah-o-Behbood)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Larkana (Al Fateh Social Welfare Association)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Larkana Mehran Welfare Trust)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: North Karachi (Social Educational Welfare Association, Sewa)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Quetta (Mahec Helping Council)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: Shah Faisal Colony (RLCC)
- Reproductive Health Baseline Survey Area Profile: New Karachi (SOCH)
10. Consultancies for Marie Stopes Society
Marie Stopes Society (MSS)
As part of consultancies provided to MSS, the following projects were undertaken:Marie Stopes Society (MSS) is an affiliate organization of Marie Stopes International, a UK based NGO providing Reproductive Health Services to both men & women throughout Pakistan. One of MSS’ s future plans was to establish a reproductive health project in Balochistan. To be able to do that it undertook a Situation Analysis in the Southern Balochistan, Makran Division. The overall objective of the study was to carry out the baseline survey on the existing situation in terms of attitudes, practices, services, resources related to reproductive health care three districts of Southern namely Turbat, Gawadar & Panjugar. The sample was a total of 300 randomly selected households across all the three districts. The sample included one married couple from each household, making a total of 900 interviews (male and female).
The proposed expansion and the experience from the baseline survey highlighted the need for training workshops for the management and field staff of MSS in gender training techniques. A Training Workshops Programme was designed to explore gender issues, gender ‘web’ and gender methodology to the management staff of MSS. MSS plans to expand at the rate of ten clinics per year for the next ten years. Implementation along with this tremendous growth poses quite a challenge for the organization.
With the proposed expansion in its work, MSS required to review its Human Resource Package. MSS and Raasta worked together in the development of the project as part of the process of reviewing its current human resource package and institutional strength and capacity. The MSS held an external review and analysis to develop a comparative human resource package to ensure its long term institutional and financial sustainability. MSS recognizes the importance of having compensation package and service conditions to attract and retain competent staff. This consultancy, review and analysis of five comparable organizations, human resource packages and infrastructure will help MSS in identifying the shortcomings in its existing human resource package and infrastructure.
Marie Stopes Society established a clinic-based reproductive health project in Karachi in 1991. The programme aimed to augment Government of Pakistan (GoP) efforts to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in Pakistan by establishing a Community Based Distribution and Information, Education and Communication Programme.
This Evaluation Study assessed the impact of MSS’s CBD programme on the beneficiaries (both workers and community). A total of 200 households were approached to collect information about issues such as distribution of contraceptives, attitudes and behavior of CBD staff, referral to MSS clinics and distribution of IEC material and awareness raising programme. In addition a total of 20 CBD field staff were covered from two project sites. Their in-depth interview covered contraceptive distribution, motivation of potential users, the impact of training which they received, in particular, the impact of their working status on their personalities, leadership development and overall empowerment.
The Pakistan Household Survey dealt with the status of reproductive health in the towns of Gujrat, Gujranwala & Sargodha of Punjab province as well as Hyderabad, Shikarpur & Larkana of Sindh province . The survey was carried out from a total of 5000 households (2000 in phase I and 3000 in phase II). The data was collected through extensive fieldwork using a team of 129 data collectors. In addition, 40 focus group discussions separately with men and women were conducted to obtain qualitative data.
- Situation Analysis of Reproductive Health in Balochistan (Turbat, Gawadar and Punjgur)
- Review of Human Resource Packages for Marie Stopes Society
- Gender Orientation Workshop
- Package of Gender Materials in Urdu & English
- Evaluation of MSS-CBD Programme (Karachi)
- Quantitative data was run on Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) format and the qualitative data was given on ethnographic format and was handed over to the University of Southampton for analysis.
11. Consultancies for Social Marketing Pakistan (SMP)
Social Marketing Pakistan (SMP)
SMP is running “The Green Star Project” since January 1995. The primary objective of this project was to strengthen and support the existing network of Registered Medical Practitioners, Pharmacists and LHVs to provide high quality family planning services and products to low-income population.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the training imparted to pharmacists and LHVs/paramedics, the evaluation study covered information on trained and un-trained pharmacists and LHVs; their knowledge, attitude and practice about FP methods, counseling and motivation, stock, promotion and sale of Green Star FP products along with clinic management. It covers the client’s perception on choice and use of FP methods, their myths and misconceptions. A two fold evaluation was carried out to compare the effectiveness and relevance of the Green Star training programme:
Quantitative evaluation and qualitative evaluation
A sample of GS trained and untrained LHVs/ pharmacist was approached by mystery clients (780 trained and 624 untrained) in eight urban locations across Pakistan, The study also had q qualitative element and a total of 24 LHVs and 42 pharmacists were covered for in-depth interviews. A total sample of 1470 interviews were covered under the evaluation study.
Social Marketing Pakistan launched a low-priced multivitamin and iron product meant for low income women. A set of thirteen focus groups were conducted by Raasta to test the developed logos, brand names and product names and to select the most appropriate logo, brand name and product name. Related marketing and promotional strategies for the iron + multivitamin product were also identified through focus group discussions.
SMP, regularly pre-tests communications messages prior to finalizing and utilizing them. SMP and its advertising agency had developed creative concepts for communications campaigns for its SABZ SITARA products, services and facilities.
Under these assignments moving storyboards were to be tested which were designed for a TV commercial. The pretesting of storyboards were carried out through twenty intensive focus group discussions.
Coverage of the focus group discussion, included:
- Details of reproductive health behavior and trends
- Comparison between Green Star and Key products and services
- Responses to the two concepts for Green Star TV advertisement
Report was prepared into three volumes:
- Volume 1: Main Report - GS III (Pharmacists)
- Volume 2: Main Report - GS IV (LHVs)
- Volume 3: Annexes
- Logo Pre-testing of Iron + Multivitamins
- Pre-testing of Creative Concepts for TV (Multi-load)
- Pre-testing of Creative Concepts for Television (Three Moving Story Boards)
12. Assessment of Government Agencies and NGOs Involved in Social Development Programmes for Women in Sindh and Main Cities of Pakistan and Capacity Building Programmes for NGOs
(Feb 1990 - Dec 1994)
The project commenced with a shortlisting of NGOs and Government agencies involved in women's development work in Sindh, and was followed by development of instruments of investigation and pretesting all over Sindh. The third phase consisted of extensive assessment of 80 selected NGOs & Government agencies. The study has provided seven volumes and includes individual reports on each of the 80 agencies. Based on its recommendations, UNICEF and WDC (together and separately) initiated a programme of training and support to NGOs. As part of this training and development initiative, Raasta was involved in a series of training and capacity building programmes in planning, management and fund raising for NGOs across the country.
- Preliminary Shortlists of Government Agencies (GAs) and Non-Govt Organizations (NGOs) involved in Social Development Programmes for Women in Sindh
- Report of the Assessment of Selected Government Agencies and Non-Government Organizations involved in Social Development Programmes for Women in Sindh, Vol. Ia & Ib
- Selected Government Agencies involved in Social Development Programmes for Women in Sindh, Vol II
- Selected Non-Government Organizations involved in Social Development Programmes for Women in Sindh Vol. III a & III b
- Updated Shorlists of Government Agencies and Non-Government Organizations Involved n Social Development Programmes for Women in Sindh
- New Areas of Programming, Baseline Survey Report – Kotirero (district Karachi)
- New Areas of Programming, Baseline Survey Report – Their (district Khairpur)
- New Areas of Programming, Baseline Survey Report – Thul (district Jacobabad)
- New Areas of Programming, Baseline Survey Report – Thano Bolo Khan (district Dadu)
- Situation Analysis of Women and Children in Sindh
- Trainers Module on Project Development and Management
- Participants' Evaluation of the Training of Trainers Workshop on Project Management
- Participants' Evaluation of the Workshop on Project Development and Management
- Masoom Shah Colony Baseline Survey Report
- Project Proposals
- Workshop Reports
- Basic Training Module on NGO Management
- Report of the Management Workshop for Non-Professional Managers of NGOs
- Workshop Report on Project Development and Management for NGOs in Balochistan
- Participants Handbook (in Urdu)
- Project Proposals
- Workshop Reports
- Training Module
13. Social Strategies and Institutional Framework Consultancies for Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC)
Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC)
(July 1992- Sep 1997)
The project was a series of assignment to evaluate the Sindh Arid Zone Development Authority (SAZDA) and Rangeland and Livestock Improvement Project (RLIP), with a view to assessing the present institutional framework and social strategy, suggesting improvements and alternatives. The capacity and readiness of the Tharparker Rural Development Project (TRDP), a local NGO, to undertake rangelands development in an environmental programme was also assessed.
As a final component, an extensive and in-depth training programme was undertaken for the Planning & Development Department, Governent of Sindh for covering social, environment and appraising capacities with a view to strengthening support for rangeland environment projects in Sindh.
- Pak Swiss Rangeland and Livestock Improvement Project - External Evaluation Report
- Evaluation of the Social Strategy in the Pak Swiss Rangeland and Livestock Improvement Project in the Sindh Arid Zone Vol - Main Report
- Evaluation of the Social Strategy in the Pak Swiss Rangeland and Livestock Improvement Project in the Sindh Arid Zone, Vol II – Nara Region
- Evaluation of the Social Strategy in the Pak Swiss Rangeland and Livestock Improvement Project in the Sindh Arid Zone, Vol III – Thar Region
- A New Institutional Framework for the Pak-Swiss Range and Livestock Improvement Project (RLIP) in the Sindh Arid Zone
- Proposal for Women’s Community Development Department of the Pak-Swiss Rangeland and Livestock Improvement Project (RLIP) in the Sindh Arid Zone
- Thar-Deep – An Emerging Experiment in Indigenization: Evaluation Report
- Routes to Common (Private) Ownership on Gaucher Lands
- SDC Supported Blanket Training Programme on Project Development and Appraisal:Volume1 (Workshop Report)
- SDC Supported Blanket Training Programme on Project Development Training Programme on Project Development & Appraisal: Volume 2 (Annexures)
- Assessment Workshops on Institutional Capacities of P&D Department: A Summary Report
- SDC Supported Repot-Writing Workshops for Planning & Development Department Government of Sindh : A Summary Report
14. Assessments of the Capacity Strengthening Requirements of Provincial Local Government and Rural Development Departments
Department for International Development (UK)
(April 1998 - April 1998)
The Department for International Development (DFID) and the World Bank had together identified a need for complementary project support to the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation component of Social Action Programme (SAP) II of the Government of Pakistan. Since approximately 70 percent of Pakistan’s rural population live in communities in which responsibility for the supply of water rests with LGRDD’s study was needed to assess whether LGRDDs possess adequate capacity to utilize additional resources effectively, and to identify and address constraints that may limit the ability of LGRDDs to implement an expanded RWSS programme.
Raasta Development Consultants were commissioned to carry out the study. The objectives of the study were to:
- Identify key institutional, human resource and physical resource factors within LGRDDs that have contributed to the success and failure of on-going community-based water supply and sanitation programmes and determine the preferred strategy for each LGRDD
Services provided by Raasta were for input into the design mission, research, strategy development, reporting & facilitation of workshop to develop log frame. This included development of criteria for measuring success of LGRDD community-based water supply and sanitation schemes; designing and development of an assessment grid covering technical, institutional, community development and participation aspects; carrying out secondary data research to identify the responsibilities of the LGRDDs as mandated by Local Government Ordinances, or other Rules, Laws etc; designing and development of structured questionnaires and observation and information tools; visiting each LGRDD for assessment in a comprehensive way (using documentation as well as direct discussions and observations in the offices and in the field); conducting data collection for reviewing water supply and sanitation schemes carried out by LGRDDs and assessment and analysis of the degree of their successes or failures including identification of successful instances involving the use low cost, community based and innovative technologies; assessing the levels of coordination and co-operation between LGRDDs, related line departments, NGOs, CBOs and private sector service providers; reviewing experience of donor assisted programmes in the RWSS sector; reviewing in broad terms budget allocations and expenditures for current and preceding fiscal years; and assessing the ability of LGRDDs to adopt new technologies, approaches and methods of working and identifying constraints.
Based on the results of the study, Raasta developed recommendations for strategies by which each LGRDD would implement an expanded RWSS programme and identify the factors critical for Successful implementation. A separate report was prepared for each province and for AJK for presentation to the British High Commission and the DFID.
- Assessment of the Capacity Strengthening Requirements of Provincial Local Government and Rural Development Departments: Volume One (Provincial Reports and Executive Summary)
- Assessment of the Capacity Strengthening Requirements of Provincial Local Government and Rural Development Departments: Volume Two (Annexes)
15. Research Study and Development of Material for the Promotion of the Primary Education Development Project (PEDP) in Sindh
Education Department, Government of Sindh and NORAD
(Oct 1996 - Aug 1997)
Niazi Z – Project advisor/consultant/team leader; responsible for development of strategy for the promotion of the Primary Education Development Project; design of the research study; design and development of promotional material; and overall supervision of the project; development of investigation tools and documentation formats; liaison with counterparts in the education department; documentation of events and findings of the baseline research study; development and production of promotional material; and supervision of field work, data entry and tabulation
Baig R - Research Officer; liaison with line departments, village organizations and NGOs for implementation of the programme of seminars; assistance in the development of tools and documentation of events; and supervision of field work
Iftikhar C – Research Officer; liaison with line departments, village organizations and NGOs for implementation of the programme of seminars; assistance in the development of tools and documentation of events; and supervision of field work
As part of the Social Action Programme – I, which started in 1992-1993, the Education Department, Government of Sindh, focused on the promotion of primary education. A joint venture of the Asian Development Bank and the Government of Pakistan, the Primary Education Development Project aimed at increasing the literacy rate of girls in Sindh by setting up 168 Community Model Schools (CMSs) which in terms of its staff development, curriculum and facilities emphasized the rural development component of the Social Action Programme.
Raasta was commissioned to work on a component of innovative activities emphasizing community participation and rural development approaches. Funded by NORAD, these included development of a strategy and materials for the promotion of the Primary Education Development Project and a research study for future planning.
Working in close collaboration with the Education Department, Government of Sindh, Raasta Development Consultants devised and implemented a programme of seminars for the promotion of girls’ primary education in Sindh and designed and conducted a baseline research study.
Specifically Raasta’s responsibilities on the project included;
- Development of a strategy to popularize and publicize the community school programme for girls through a programme of seminars at village, district, division and provincial levels and build collaborative links between the government, NGOs and the communities
- Implementation of the strategy by or ganizing events at the 168 CMSs in rural Sindh
- Documentation of the events at the village, district, division and provincial levels
- Documentation of the status of the CMSs
- Development and production of promotional material to; motivate villagers to send their girls to schools; to boost the issue of girls’ education at the grass roots level and to mobilize and develop PTAs as the essential link between the government and the people
- Development and the conducting of a research study to collect baseline data for future planning. The baseline data included a family profile and a qualitative survey to determine the usefulness of the CMSs and the readiness of the community to form effective PTAs
- Consolidation of the baseline data at the district, division and provincial level
- Development of a data base for each district including a family profile and an education profile related to the villagers perceptions of relevance of the curriculum and the role of PTAs
- A Strategy Paper for the Promotion of Girls’ Primary Education in Sindh
- Event Reports of Seminars at CMSs
- Promotional material including brochures, posters and handouts
- Status report of each CMS school
- District wise database of the Family and Education profile
16. Early Detection of Impairments Among Children in Government Primary Schools
UNICEF / Directorate of School Education, Karachi
(Mar 1991 - Nov 1994)
This was a comprehensive capacity building programme with five components: A screening survey, experts' workshop on childhood impairments in government schools, development of a referral system, guidebook for teachers, training of trainers workshop for supervisors. Output included survey reports, workshop reports, handbook from the consolidated material of the workshops, guidebooks and a computer programme.
- Final Report on the Project "Early Detection of Impairments in Primary School Children" District East, Karachi (Aug 1994)
- Observation Report on the Training of Teachers Workshop on Early Detection of Impairments in Female Primary Schools, District East, Karachi (May 1994)
- Teachers' Handbook on Classroom Detection of Impairments (in English and Urdu, 1991)
- Report on Training of Trainers Workshop on Early Detection of Impairment in Primary School Children (Nov 1991)
- Report of the Screening Survey of Children with Impairments in Government Primary Schools (Nov 1991)
- Report of the Experts Workshop on Early Detection of Impairments in Government Primary School Children
17. Sindh Road Sector Development Programme (Pakistan) - (From July 2005 to June 2009)
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan received a loan from the ADB towards the cost of a Road Sector Development Programme. The programme involved a project loan for road development project in Sindh province, which comprised 3 components:
- Investment Component
- Provincial Sector Reforms Component
- Poverty Reduction Pilot Project
Raasta provided services on the sector reform and poverty reduction pilot project. The objectives of the sector reforms were to support initiatives in the road sector, establishing efficient resource management systems, preserving road assets, increasing road safety and improving governance. The sector reforms and institutional developments at the provincial level were to initiate a process of change intended to transform the Works & Services Department into an efficient institution that in partnership with District Governments and the private sector would provide a safe, cost effective and well maintained provincial road network.
As part of the Sector Reforms, Raasta provided services for the following:
Private Sector Partnership/Community Partnership
Assessment of PSP rules and regulations and recommendations for instituting private sector participation in the road sector of Sindh; preparing a set of guidelines, model contracts and agreements appropriate to common PSP opportunities, devising standard and transparent procedures for inviting potential private sector investors.
- Reviewed and commented on the Government’s policies for private sector participation (PSP) in the road sector
- Assembled, examined, scrutinized, decrees and guidelines already submitted by private groups elsewhere
- Assembled and analyzed existing laws, regulations, decrees and guidelines governing PSP
- Prepared a set of guidelines, model contracts, and agreements appropriate to common PSP opportunities, each designed to maximize the benefits of competition, minimize the risk of monopoly abuse and facilitate monitoring
- Devised standard and transparent procedures for inviting potential private sector investors
Resource and Finance Management (Scope of work)
- Study of the WSD organization, it’s management principles and operational systems
- Proposals for improved management systems and developments of the organization
- Human resources development
- Development of performance indicators, improvement of financial management and budget preparation
- Development of performance budgeting systems, progress monitoring, use of human and equipment resources and training on the above
- Coordination and liaison with Government of Sindh, RSDD and District Government assistance in Procuring documents etc.
Services of Deputy Technical Advisor (Scope of work)
- Maintaining coordination and/or liaison with the government of Sindh, RSDD and district government.
- Facilitating other members of the project team in performance of their tasks and assignments as envisaged under the terms of reference.
Poverty Reduction Pilot Project
The Poverty Reduction Pilot Project (PRPP) was an initiative of SRSDP for increasing the use and benefits of local employment in road construction, rehabilitation and maintenance to supplement poverty reduction strategies in the province. PRPP was implemented in 3 districts of Sindh upon 3 rural access roads being constructed under the SRSDP. The pilot was implemented by NGOs as implementing partners of the GoS.
The pilot was implemented along 3 lines:
- Social mobilization
- Training and employment
- Monitoring and evaluation
The key activities were maximizing local employment of local communities, preferably of women, in construction of roads and routine maintenance.
Raasta provided Technical Advisory services for sector Reforms Component and for Public Private Partnership. Services of Raasta on the Poverty reduction Pilot Project included the following:
- Design and development of the Poverty Reduction Pilot Project with special emphasis on addressing Gender issues and providing economic opportunities for women in the project. This entailed visits to the rural access roads being constructed by SRSDP and selection of site for the pilot in consultation with communities and with the GoS. The roads selected were located in Sanghar, Khairpur and Badin.
- Conducting the baseline survey on the three roads selected. In Sanghar the baseline covered 16 villages and 821 households. In Khairpur, 12 villages and 810 households while in Badin it was 20 villages and 800 households. FGDs were also conducted with men and women groups in each of the villages.
- Preparation of the Terms of Reference and the Request for Proposals (on the ADB format) for selection of implementing partners, evaluation of NGOs and recommendations to the GoS for selecting the implementing partner.
- Implementation Assessment of PRPP; In Sanghar the implementation assessment covered 16 villages and 821 households. In Khairpur, 12 villages and 810 households (the project was not implemented in Badin). FGDs were also conducted with men and women in the pilot villages and with road contractors,
- Final Evaluation of PRPP
The output of the project included:
- Poverty Reduction Pilot Project Revised Plan
- Baseline Survey Report: District Badin, Khairpur and Sanghar
- Terms of Reference for NGOs and Request for Proposals (RFP)
- Impact Assessment Report: District Khairpur and Sanghar
- Final Evaluation Report